Anon. (2015) Situational Analysis: Malakal POC Site
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Malakal is unique as the major inter-ethnic Protection of Civilians (POC) site in South Sudan, a fact which distinguishes its internal dynamics. A strategic military garrison, Malakal was the second largest city in the country but after fierce fighting is now largely abandoned by civilians. Reflecting the demographics of the city, the POC site is majority Shilluk with substantial numbers of Nuer and Dinka. Communal tensions are primarily between Shilluk and Nuer populations, who are perceived to be on opposite sides of the war, and driven by a range of grievances related to past land and resource issues and present violations that have occurred in the course of the war. Inter-communal riots broke out between Shilluk and Nuer IDPs in February, October and November 2014. Underscoring the fact that conflict is not always overtly violent, the period between the riots was one in which communities waged a “cold war” inside the site using tactics such as restrictions of movement and trade and blockades of food and water.