Verjee (2011). Sudan's Aspirational Army. A History of Joint Integrated Units
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Southern Sudan’s vote for independence in January 2011, terminates the interim arrangements agreed to
by the National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) in the 2005 CPA, which ended the long-running civil war between the north and south. Now that the outcome of secession has been declared, a series of steps in preparation for the emergence of two separate Sudanese states has been triggered, in compliance with the CPA.
The CPA set out elaborate provisions for security arrangements between the north and south, addressing the myriad security forces present in Sudan at the end of the civil war, including the government of Sudan’s SAF and the Southern Sudan-based SPLA. The agreement also dealt with the so-called other armed groups (OAGs), the various militia and paramilitary forces operating throughout Sudan, some numbering only a few dozen men, others considered significant military powers in their own right, and all of which officially operated outside of SAF and SPLA control prior to the 2005 ceasefire.
At the heart of the CPA was an ambitious agreement to permit the continuation of the SAF and SPLA as two independent armies with separate military command structures, while requiring the formation of jointly managed and integrated armed units — the JIUs — as the future foundation of a new national army that would transcend SAF-SPLA divisions. Numbering approximately 40,000, the JIUs were positioned throughout Southern Sudan, as well as in the contested areas of South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Abyei, straddling the north-south boundary.