Rondinell (1981). Administrative Decentralisation and Economic Development in the Sudan's Experiment with Devolution
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IN his classic study of decentralisation and development, Henry Maddick argued that economic growth and social modernisation
depend in part on the ability of Third-World govenments to diffuse responsibility for development planning and administration, to expand participation in economic activities, and to promote new centres of creativity within society. Over-concentration of administrative authority stifles development, Maddick insisted; it leads to waste and corruption, delays action, and creates irrational and inefficient management practices, the costs of which developing countries cannot afford. To illustrate his point, Maddick cited the effects of the centralised supply
system in the Sudan in the late I950s, through which 'shoes made in Fasher were sent 400 miles by rail to Khartoum where the whole shoe supply was concentrated. When Fasher wanted shoes for school children and government personnel it had to send to Khartoum for them.' He
also noted that school desks and equipment for the provincial city of Juba had to be ordered from Khartoum, which was go miles away and connected only by inefficient river transport, even though the wood from which the furniture was made originally came from Juba.