Millar (2006). Language, Identities and Ideologies. A new era for Sudan
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Conflicts about language issues and language planning in the Sudan have accompanied the Sudanese political life since the early 20th century. Until the mid 1980s, these linguistic conflicts were mainly reflecting the South/North polarization (cf. The Rejaf Conference of 1927, The Addis Abeba Agreement of 1972). From the mid 1980s, and with the spread of the regional conflicts to many « Northern » Sudanese Areas (Darfur, South Kordofan, Ingessana, Eastern Sudan etc.), linguistic claims have progressively emerged as one of the aspects of the cultural diversity of the whole Sudan. Therefore since 1997 a number of constitutional and political decrees have reconsidered the status of the Sudanese languages (cf. the decree of 22th November1997) including the May 26th 2004 Naivasha Peace Agreement (For an
analysis of this agreement see the paper of Ashraf Abdullay in this panel) and the current amendment of the Sudanese Constitution. The Naivasha Agreement can be considered as an historical landmark in this respect. For the first time since Independence, all Sudanese vernaculars (and not only Southern Sudanese vernaculars, as it was the case in the previous Addis Abeba Agreement) are recognized as potential national languages.