Small Arms Survey (2008). How Peace is Failing South Sudan Female Combatants.
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Women and girls formed a significant contingent of the Sudan People’s Liberation
Army (SPLA) and other armed groups (OAGs)1 during the first and second Sudanese civil wars (1956– 2005). Some fought on the front lines, while others travelled with the armed groups, carrying ammunition and food, and providing sexual services and medical support. Their roles were complex and multifaceted, and while some women served willingly, others were forced into supportive activities against their will. Still others saw their association with male soldiers as the only viable means of livelihood in a country bereft of economic opportunities.
Today, the contributions and activities of South Sudanese female combatants
and women associated with armed forces and groups (WAAFG) remain largely unrecognized and undocumented.
Their post-conflict status is among the lowest of all groups in South Sudan, regardless of ethnic or tribal background. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of 2005 neither identifiethem as a specific group entitled to consideration, nor provides any special compensation for their many sacrifices. As of July 2008, promises of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) remain unfulfilled, and most women who were actively involved in the rebellion remain dependent on male soldiers and security service members.